The Five Major Sciences

Great Indo-Tibetan Buddhist institutions of higher learning such as Nālandā and Vikramaśilā in India offered broad curriculums and thereby attracted students interested in a wide range of subject matter. Although the main focus of the training was Buddhist philosophy, both sutra and tantra, other subjects were valued for their importance in producing a well-rounded intellectual who could communicate his learning to others.

These universities specialized in the classical Indic system of learning (Skt: pañcavidyāsthāna) known in Tibetan as rikné nga (rig gnas lnga), or “five sciences.” From its founding in Tibet, our namesake, Samye, offered training in the “five major sciences”.  These five primary divisions of study are also known as the five “classic sciences”.

Tibetan thinkers usually group the first four sciences as “outer” or conventional (tha snyad) subjects while Buddhist philosophy is known as the ‘”inner” (nang) subject.

The Five Major Sciences

Tibetan thinkers usually group the first four sciences as “outer” or conventional (tha snyad) subjects while Buddhist philosophy is known as the ‘”inner” (nang) subject.

Buddhist Philosophy

Phakchok Rinpoche and senior instructors offer regular audio, video, or written wisdom teachings. Philosophy represents the “inner science” or study of the mind. Many of these teachings include self-reflections or practice exercises to help you check your understanding. Browse by topic and level according to your interest.

The Five Minor Sciences

In addition, students also were offered instruction in the “five minor sciences” known as the “ordinary sciences”. Bodhisattvas were trained in these five ordinary sciences so that they could perfect and attain pristine cognition (ye shes kyi tshogs).

Buddhist Arts

Students at great Buddhis universities in India and Tibet studied the science of fine arts and crafts (śilpa-karma-sthāna vidyā). Sculpture, architecture, painting, music, and dance all helped convey deep spiritual meanings throughout Buddhist history.

Bodhisattva Training in the Sciences

Sangye Desi Gyatso, (1653–1705) was the regent of the Great Fifth Dalai Lama who founded the School of Medicine and Astrology called Men-Tsee-Khang. He wrote a foundational text on Tibetan medicine, the Blue Beryl in which he quotes a number of early texts that emphasize the five sciences.

The bodhisattva seeks out a Dharma. What does he seek out? How does he search? Why does he search? In brief, the bodhisattva seeks out the bodhisattva canon, the śrāvaka canon, the treatises of the outsiders, and the arts and crafts of the world…The treatises of the outsiders are of three types: those on logic, those on language, and those on medicine. The arts and crafts of the world are many and varied. They include, for example, the crafts of goldsmiths, blacksmiths, and jewelers. All this knowledge can be classified under the five sciences, which are inner science, logic, language, medicine, and arts and crafts. Whatever the bodhisattva seeks is contained within these five sciences. Therefore, he seeks out all sciences.

—Asaṅga, Stages of the Bodhisattva from Stages of the Yogacaryā quoted in The Mirror of Beryl: A Historical Introduction to Tibetan Medicine by Sangye Desi Gyatso, p. 42-3.

Why Study the Sciences?

Why were these topics considered important? The Sūtra of Great Skillful Means Repaying with Gratitude (Thabs mkhas pa drin lan bsab pa’i mdo) addresses each aspect of study in turn.  From the text, we can understand that these sciences were not selected to simply create scholars and clever intellectuals. Instead, great adepts acknowledged that these fields of study would help the bodhisattva develop more skills for the benefit of all beings.

For example, according to the sūtra, bodhisattvas studied logic so that they could refute the criticism of others in debate.

Moreover, a strong grasp of logic meant they could inspire faith in followers. By studying philosophy, of course, the bodhisattvas gained mastery of the Dharma and could then explain authentically to all beings.

The sūtra explains that bodhisattvas should study grammar so that they could express themselves elegantly, and inspire confidence in their listeners. They also were expected to understand and be able to explain subtle differences of meaning in terminology.

Moreover, bodhisattvas studied medicine so that they could alleviate suffering and benefit beings according to their vow. Tibetan medicine, known as “Sowa Rigpa” was considered essential and has practically benefited the Tibetans and Himalayan people for centuries. The library of Tibetan medical knowledge includes thousands of Tibetan texts. Primary among them are the four medical tantras, or ‘rYud-bzhi’. These Four Medical Tantras are the foundational texts for training Tibetan physicians from ancient times to the present.

Throughout Tibetan history, prominent thinkers and practitioners advocated the study of the five sciences. The thirteenth-century scholar Sakya Paṇḍita ( 1182-1251) was a prime example of a scholar-practitioner who underlined the need for broad knowledge. Sakya Paṇḍita cited Maitreya’s position in the Mahāyānasūtrālamkāra (Ornament of the Mahāyāna Sūtra) when he reminded students:

Without becoming a scholar in the five sciences
Not even the supreme sage can become omniscient.


By studying the science of language, we help preserve the Buddhist teachings and express core concepts. Tibetan Buddhist scholar-practitioners thought carefully as they developed a  Buddhist vocabulary. When we know the etymology and context, we discover multiple levels of meaning.  

The Five Sciences According to Jamgön Kongtrul Lodrö Tayé

Grammar and logic eradicate wrong understandings of word and meaning. Fine arts and medicine bring into the fold [students] seeking both general and particular [skills]. The inner science [Buddhist philosophy]  brings about an understanding of all aspects of the path to omniscience.

With that vision, Samye Institute seeks to present the five classic sciences so as to fulfil the mission Kongtrul describes as follows:

Eradicating wrong understanding,
Bringing seekers into the fold,
Teaching that through which one attains omniscience.

Medicine & Wellness

Wellness translates to a holistic balance—a steady mind in a healthy body. Learn how to integrate physical practices, nutrition, and breathwork with reflection and meditation.


 The study of knowledge—what counts as knowledge, how to acquire it, and so on—is called epistemology. Broadly speaking, the word in Sanskrit most closely associated with epistemology is pramāṇa (in Tibetan, tshad ma). In the context of Buddhism specifically, this term has often been translated as “Buddhist Logic.”