Grammar

~ February 11, 2019 ~

Buddha: The Awakened

Grammar • Article

Buddha (Tibetan sang rgyas) “The Awakened”

Buddha is an example in the classical language of Tibet, of a word conveying deep meaning. The study of grammar allows us to investigate the construction of Dharma language terminology and to access the teachings contained within the language itself.

Grammar: The Establishment of a Dharma Language

When Buddhism entered Tibet from India, it faced a linguistic challenge.  How would one explain even the word “Buddha”? Many Dharma terms had no equivalents in the dialects spoken in the Himalayan regions. Therefore, King Thride Songtsen, or Sadnalegs (the youngest son of the emperor Trisong Detsen) 804-815, gathered learned scholars at Samye monastery. There he instructed them to compile a classical Tibetan language. The vocabulary employed needed to be  sufficiently rich to translate the sophisticated Buddhist literature. These scholars created a systematic method relying on loan-translations and concepts, along with some few loan-words.  At the same time, they created grammatical manuals and dictionaries.

The  sGra sbyor bam po gnyis pa is an important classical Tibetan grammar text. It outlines how etymological treatment of Sanskrit terms should be translated by fixed equivalents into Tibetan.  And Tibetan terminology generated on the basis of the discussions in the sGra sbyor contributes to the Sanskrit-Tibetan lexicon named the  Mahā-vyutpatti. In English we translate this as The Great Volume of Precise Understanding or Essential Etymology.

The introduction to the text explains:

The king requested the preceptors from the west, Ācārya Jinamitra, Surendrabodhi, Śīlendrabodhi, Dānaśīla, Bodhimitra, and the Tibetan preceptors Ratnarakṣita, Dharmatāśīla, as well as the learned translators Jñānasena, Jayarakṣita, Mañjuśrīvarman, Ratnendraśīla and others to translate from Indic languages into Tibetan the terminologies of the Great and the Small Vehicles, to define the terms, and make a written word list. 

The team corrected mistakes and misinterpretations of older translations were corrected.  They carefully restored omissions in early translations. Moreover they reduced overtranslations and succeeded in translating many previously unknown works.

Buddha: Understanding the Word

According to the sGra sbyor entry on Buddha:

When we interpret the word Buddha, one aspect is mohanidrāprabuddhatvāt prabuddhapuruṣavat, as it is said [in the Sanskrit Buddhist scholarly literature], “because he has awakened from the sleep of delusion he is like a man who has awakened,” and by that we obtain the element “awakened” (sang).

Also one aspect is: buddher vikāśanād buddha vibuddhapadmavat, “Intelligence unfolds widely, and thus the Buddha is just like a lotus opening its mouth and spreads out,” thus we say “Awakened and Flowered” (sang rgyas).

The meaning of the word is in general “having understood all moments of existence and being absolutely awakened.”

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